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Posted by : cj on Friday, September 09, 2005 - 01:01 PM
Members' Posting Pool .
The deadline for the Summer Contest is over: if you would like an opportunity to get published CLICK HERE

ANNOUNCING is pleased to announce the
2007 Chicago Summer Poetry Contest with $200 in prizes.


--Poetry Submissions will be accepted for this contest in two categories.

Category One: Poetry about Chicago.

Category Two: Poetry about poetry.


1) TWO FIRST PRIZE WINNERS: There will be two First Prize winners, one from each category. One poem from each category will be chosen as the First Prize winning poem of that category. First Prize winning poets will receive $100 each, an award certificate, and publication of the winning poem at

2) TEN HONORABLE MENTIONS: Five poems from each category will receive an honorable mention. Poets receiving honorable mentions will receive an award certificate and will have their poem published at

3) ALL POETS WILL GET THE CHANCE TO BE PUBLISHED: ALL poems submitting into this contest will be published in an online anthology at, to be published on the internet in August of 2007.


--Your poem about Chicago can be about Chicago as a city, a particular Chicago neighborhood, the people of Chicago, a person from Chicago, Chicago traditions, food, weather, Lake Michigan, landmarks, history, or any aspect of Chicago the author chooses to explore. Your poem about Chicago does not necessarily need to include the word "Chicago" in it. Use your imagination.


--Your poem about poetry can be about the process of writing poetry, poetry as a personification, poetry about a poet, poetry inspired by a famous poem, the academics of poetry, a parody of a poetry style, or whatever your imagination can come up with, as long as it is a poem about poetry. Your poem about poetry does not necessarily need to include the word "poetry" in it. Use your imagination.


--Poems submitted into this contest must be the original work of the submitting author.

----Poems can be written in any form or style, including freestyle, rap, rant, haiku, sonnet, prose--there are no limitations.

--Poets do not have to live in Chicago to participate in this contest. We encourage submissions from anyone, anywhere in the world.

--Poets may submit up to three poems per category (total of six poems). All poems will be considered separately and equally. (See below for entry fee instructions.)

--Please specify if your poem has been previously published.

--All poets who enter this contest must have an active e-mail account, as all correspondence regarding this contest will be done through e-mail.

--DEADLINE: Entries must be received by July 31, 2007. Don't wait until the deadline; send in your entries today. Winners will be announced in August. Winners will be invited to (but not required to) read as part of a special event sponsored by

--Content of poem(s) must be suitable for online publication at If the editors and/or judges feel that a poem is not suitable for online publication, the entry fee will be returned to the author and the poem will not be included in the online anthology at


--Submissions for the 2007 Chicago Summer Poetry Contest can be emailed to

--Entry fee is $10 per poem. Before emailing poem(s), CLICK ON THIS LINK RIGHT HERE to pay the entry fee by credit card, debit card or e-check. Please make sure you fill out where it says "price" with a dollar amount to include all your entries. Example: if you are submitting one poem, the entry fee is $10. Two poems, $20. Up to six poems (three poems maximum per category); six poems would be a $60 entry fee. Type in correct amount where it says "price".

--Submissions of poetry should then be sent in an email as a microsoft word attachment. If you do not understand what this means or if you have questions, write to If you send the work in the "body" of the email (rather than as an attachment) you risk losing the form of the poetry.

--Author's name and e-mail address must be included at the top of each page of poetry.

--Also specify either "Category 1" or "Category 2" at the top of each poem.

--In the body of the email, confirm that you have paid your entry fee through PayPal, and state the name by which the entry fee was made, if it is different than your own.


--Poems should be typed or printed on 8 ½ x 11 white paper in a plain, black font.

--Poems that have more than one page should be stapled together or held together with a paperclip, and pages should be numbered.

--The author's name and email address must appear at the top of all pages of poetry.

--Also specify either "Category 1" or "Category 2" at the top of each poem.

--Send one copy of your poem(s), postage paid, to:

Chicago Poetry Contest
c/o C. J. Laity
3345 N. Marshfield #301
Chicago, IL 60657

IMPORTANT: Do not forget to include the entry fee, which is $10 per poem.

--Include a check or money order for the appropriate entry fee ($10 per poem); that is, $10 for one poem, $20 for two poems, and so on, up to a maximum of six poems ($60)—three poems per category. Check or money order must be made out payable to the order of C. J. Laity.

*Entry fees into this contest will be considered gifts to and will be used by its publisher, C. J. Laity, to fund the prize money and will also go toward the publication of in general and the live poetry events it sponsors. Entry fees are not considered payment for any service or product.

**DEADLINE: Entries must be received by July 31, 2007. Don't wait until the deadline; send in your entries today. Winners will be announced in August. Winners will be invited to (but not required to) read as part of a special event sponsored by

***All rights revert back to the author and author keeps all copyright of the work after publication at


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Acrostics Excellent discussion and illustration of the single, double, and triple acrostic. Written by Smitha Chakravarthula on the Poetic Nest site. Acrostics Al Rocheleau, online poetry guru on the Orca forum, gives a thorough, understandable explanation, with example. Ballad Al Rocheleau's thorough, understandable explanation, with example. From the Orca forum. Ballad Wikipedia article. Brief definitions of several types of ballads, with links to a wide variety of samples. Ballade Not to be confused with the Ballad. From Larry Gross's theWORDshop pages of poetry forms. The Ballade adapted from French into English by Geoffrey Chaucer, is a member of the large Rondeau family. Ballade Bob Newman's explanation of the form, including variations;including the complete Adelaide Crapsey cinquains. From the dmoz Open Directory Project. Cinquain Amaze: The Cinquain Journal. Cinq-Cinquain A sequence of five cinquain; from the French: "five groupings of five." Clerihew "How to Write a Clerihew," from Clear and simple definition, but it is all you need to know to write one; with examples. Clerihew From Wikipedia. Brief definition, with examples, including "The World's shortest Clerihew." Clerihew Clear explanation, with examples from, where you will find lots of other fun with words. Couplet From The Craft of Poetry, a poetry course devised by Vince Gotera and Damon McLaughlin. Dorsimbra Created by Eve Braden, Frieda Dorris and Robert Simonton; contains three quatrains, each requiring a different pattern. Dramatic Monologue: An Introduction Brief explanation with links to other discussions of the form. Grossblank A form created by Larry Gross, patterned after blank verse. This is his explanation of the form, with example. Epistle John Hewitt's informative intro to the Epistle, with an example. The Grossblank A variation on blank verse, created by Larry Gross; with examples. Kyrielle Originally a medieval French verse pattern adapted into English. From Larry Gross's theWORDshop pages of poetry forms. Limerick From The Limerick Special Interest Group. Along with the next item, the best online sites I've seen for the form. Limericks Just for the Fun of It Excellent. Includes "a Dozen How-to Tips for Beginners." Limerick The dmoz Open Directory Project, a handy list of links to other limerick sites. The Limerick Robert Lo's intro to the limericks with examples. Little Willie Created in 1902 by Harry Graham, this nonsense quatrain has much in common with the limerick. From Larry Gross's theWORDshop pages of poetry forms. The Ode Intro to the basics of writing an ode, including the Pindaric and Horatian . Ode Encarta's discussion of Classical and Modern odes, with many links to examples. The English Ode Links to discussions of the ode. The Palinode is a song, discourse or poem recanting a previous one. It has a lengthy history in both serious and humorous verse. From Larry Gross's theWORDshop pages of poetry forms. Pleiades A single seven-line stanza conceived in 1999 by Craig Tigerman, Lead Editor of Sol Magazine. Quatrain From The Craft of Poetry, a poetry course devised by Vince Gotera and Damon McLaughlin. Includes a discussion of the pantoum. Sestina From The Craft of Poetry, a poetry course devised by Vince Gotera and Damon McLaughlin Sestina Al Rocheleau, online poetry guru first with Atlantic Monthly then with the popular Orca forum, gives a thorough, understandable explanation, with example. Sestina Excellent how-to article by Ariadne Unst, "The Sestina Verse Form." Sestina From Larry Gross's theWORDshop pages of poetry forms. Most sestinas take a serious road. This definition includes a humorous example. Sonnet "The Sonnet Verse Form" by Joan Zimmerman: An excellent introduction, explaining differences and characteristics of a good many variations of the form. Sonnet Al Rocheleau, online poetry guru first with Atlantic Monthly then with the popular Orca forum, gives a thorough, understandable explanation, with example. Sonnet From The Craft of Poetry, a poetry course devised by Vince Gotera and Damon McLaughlin Sonnet Central Best sonnet site around. Definitions, instructions for writing, articles and sonnets from 600 years of sonneteers, from Petrarch to the 20th century, plus a Sonnet Magnet board for instant composing and other attractions as well; you can even submit poems to the site and read those of others. Tercet From The Craft of Poetry, a poetry course devised by Vince Gotera and Damon McLaughlin Tercet and Triad John Hewitt's brief intro to the 3-line verse pattern, with examples. Terza Rima Smitha Chakravarthula defines and illustrates this verse pattern adapted from Italian poets of the 13th century. Includes helpful hints on using meter and rhyme. Triolet The oldest of the various Round forms from 13th century France, From Larry Gross's theWORDshop pages of poetry forms. Triolet The Triolet Verse Form" by Joan Zimmerman, a practical how-to. Villanelle Al Rocheleau of Orca forum gives a thorough, understandable explanation, with example. Villanelle Verse Form Ariadne Unst's explanation and example.Villanelle and Terzanelle From The Craft of Poetry, a poetry course devised by Vince Gotera and Damon McLaughlin. Climbing Rhyme Larry Gross's introduction to a simple form of this ancient Burmese verse pattern. Burmese Climbing Rhyme Smitha Chakravarthula's explication of the pattern seems to be taken from my earlier article (See above entry), but she has added illustrations of two specific forms: the Luc Bat and the Than Bauk. Ghazal "Basic Points about the Ghazal," by Agha Shahid Ali. One of the few sites which stress the "canonical form of the ghazal " as opposed to looser modern variations. Ghazal Four informative articles and several examples; from AHApoetry. Ghazal "The Ghazal Verse Form," a good article by Len Anderson, from Ariadne's Web. The Haibun Beth Vieira's "Haibun: Haikai Prose" from Ariadne's Web. Brief but good intro to the form. Haijinx An international online journal stressing the role of humor in haiku. Links to other sites. Haiku Helpful access to how-to's, articles and examples. Includes a dictionary of season words and links to other sites. From AHApoetry. Haiku Joan Zimmerman's helpful introduction to "The Haiku Verse Form," from Ariadne's Web. Haiku: Beyond the 5-7-5 Al Rocheleau's understandable explanation of haiku and senryu, with examples. Haiku Definition of Haiku by Alexey Andreyev. Point by point discussion of how to make a haiku, with good examples. Haiku Is What? Ruth Davidson's fine introductory article on haiku. Haiku Universe Dhugal J. Lindsay's excellent site on haiku; also links to tanka, renga, renku, and the difference between haiku and senryu. Links to Please Elizabeth St Jacques' links to haiku, tanka, renga and sijo sites. Pantoum Ariadne Unst's introduction to "The Pantoum Verse Form." Pantoum Al Rocheleau's thorough, understandable explanation, with example. Pantoum Bob Newman's easy to understand explanation, with example. Pantoum Damon McLaughlin deals with the Quatrain and the Pantoum as one example. Poetry In The Light Elizabeth St Jacques provides a variety of information and examples for haiku as well as for haibun, renga, rengay, dodoistu, tanka and sijo. Renga "What Is a Renga?" Larry Gross's basic introduction to this ancient Japanese pattern, with examples and a template for seasonal renga. Renga: The Four Elements Renga A new variation on the ancient renga pattern, with example. Rengay Verse Form Extensive discussion by Joan Zimmerman, with examples. Explains the differences between rengay and renga/renku. Renku Home William J. Higginson's extensive explanations of renku and other linking patterns. Includes an article on the differences between renga and renku. Rubáiyát Ariadne Unst's "The Rubáiyát Verse Form": one of the more understandable explanations of this pattern. Sijo Larry Gross's extensive explanation of classical sijo, with abundant examples and links to other pages. Sijo Elizabeth St Jacques excellent and extensive site for sijo. Sijo AHApoetry presents an introduction to the form, with examples; based on articles by Larry Gross. Sijoforum An email forum for posting anything and everything about sijo. Open to all. Hosted by Larry Gross. Tan Renga Larry Gross's "The World of Tan Renga" explains the form and adds many examples. Tanka Joan Zimmerman's introduction to "The Tanka Verse Form." Tanka Informative definitions, articles and history, with examples and links to other sites. From AHApoetry. Tanka Richard MacDonald's explanation, with historical background on tanka, sedoka and choka. Tanka: American Tanka Journal founded in 1996; dedicated exclusively to contemporary English-language tanka. You'll find the definition of tanka in the History link. Tanka and Sijo Neca Stoller's definitions and examples for tanka, sedoka, sijo and haibun, with links to other sites and markets. Whitney Created by Betty Ann Whitney, this seven-line pattern contains 3, 4, 3, 4, 3, 4, 7 syllables respectively. All American: Glossary of Literary Terms Alphabetical compilation by students at the University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Bob's Byway's Glossary of Poetic Terms Probably the most widely-known and most-used glossary on the Internet, with cross-references and informative sidelights. Craft of Poetry A course taught at the U of Northern Iowa; provides clear definitions and illustrations of 7 poetry forms and 7 important poetry characteristics: Style, Repetition, Rhyme & Music, Line & Meter, Imagery, Form, and Tradition. allegory (AL-eh-GOR-ee): a narrative that serves as an extended metaphor. Allegories are written in the form of fables, parables, poems, stories, and almost any other style or genre. The main purpose of an allegory is to tell a story that has characters, a setting, as well as other types of symbols, that have both literal and figurative meanings. The difference between an allegory and a symbol is that an allegory is a complete narrative that conveys abstract ideas to get a point across, while a symbol is a representation of an idea or concept that can have a different meaning throughout a literary work (A Handbook to Literature). One well-known example of an allegory is Dante’s The Divine Comedy. In Inferno, Dante is on a pilgrimage to try to understand his own life, but his character also represents every man who is in search of his purpose in the world (Merriam Webster Encyclopedia of Literature). Although Virgil literally guides Dante on his journey through the mystical inferno, he can also be seen as the reason and human wisdom that Dante has been looking for in his life. See A Handbook to Literature, Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature. Machella Caldwell, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke alliteration (a-LIT-uh-RAY-shuhn): a pattern of sound that includes the repetition of consonant sounds. The repetition can be located at the beginning of successive words or inside the words. Poets often use alliteration to audibly represent the action that is taking place. For instance, in the Inferno, Dante states: "I saw it there, but I saw nothing in it, except the rising of the boiling bubbles" (261). The repetition of the "b" sounds represents the sounds of bubbling, or the bursting action of the boiling pitch. In addition, in Sir Phillip Sidney's Astrophel and Stella, the poet states: "Biting my truant pen, beating myself for spite" (Line 13). This repetition of the "t" sound represents the action of the poet; one can hear and visualize his anguish as he bites the pen. Also in Astrophel and Stella, the poet states, "Oft turning others' leaves, to see if thence would flow, / Some fresh and fruitful showers upon my sunburn'd brain" (7-8). Again, the poet repeats the "fr" sounds to emphasize the speaker's desire for inspiration in expressing his feelings. Poets may also use alliteration to call attention to a phrase and fix it into the reader's mind; thus, it is useful for emphasis. Therefore, not only does alliteration provide poetry or prose with a unique sound, it can place emphasis on specific phrases and represent the action that is taking place. See A Handbook to Literature, Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Stacey Ann Singletary, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke allusion (a-LOO-zhuhn): a reference in a literary work to a person, place, or thing in history or another work of literature. Allusions are often indirect or brief references to well-known characters or events. Specific examples of allusions can be found throughout Dante’s Inferno. In a passage, Dante alludes to the Greek mythological figures, Phaethon and Icarus, to express his fear as he descends from the air into the eighth circle of hell. He states: Allusions are often used to summarize broad, complex ideas or emotions in one quick, powerful image. For example, to communicate the idea of self-sacrifice one may refer to Jesus, as part of Jesus' story portrays him dying on the cross in order to save mankind (Matthew 27:45-56). In addition, to express righteousness, one might allude to Noah who "had no faults and was the only good man of his time" (Genesis 6:9-22). Furthermore, the idea of fatherhood or patriarchial love can be well understood by alluding to Abraham, who was the ancestor of many nations (Genesis 17:3-6). Finally, Cain is an excellent example to convey banishment, rejection, or evil, for he was cast out of his homeland by God (Genesis 4:12). Thus, allusions serve an important function in writing in that they allow the reader to understand a difficult concept by relating to an already familiar story. See A Handbook to Literature, Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Stacey Ann Singletary, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke antagonist (an-TAG-uh-nist): a character in a story or poem who deceives, is not supposed to be heard by other actors on stage. An aside is usually used to let the audience know what a character is about to do or what he or she is thinking. For example, in Othello, Iago gives several asides, informing the audience of his plans and how he will try to achieve his goals. Asides are important because they increase an audience's involvement in a play by giving them vital information pertaining what is happening, both inside of a character's mind and in the plot of the play. See A Handbook to Literature, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, Merriam Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature. Dawn Oxendine, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke ballad (BAL-uhd): a narrative folk song. The ballad is traced back to the Middle Ages. Ballads were usually created by common people and passed orally due to the illiteracy of the time. Subjects for ballads include killings, feuds, important historical events, and rebellion. For example, in the international ballad “Lord Randall,” the young man is poisoned by his sweetheart, and in “Edward,” the son commits patricide. A common stylistic element of the ballad is repetition. “Lord Randall” illustrates this well with the phrase at the end of each verse: “…mother, mak my bed soon, for I’m sick at the heart and I fain wad lie down.” A Handbook to Literature notes the ballad occurs in very early literature in nearly every nation. Therefore, in addition to being entertaining, ballads can help us to understand a given culture by showing us what values or norms that culture deemed important. See A Handbook to Literature, Benet’s Reader’s Encyclopedia, Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature, The Book of Ballads. Monica Horne, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke character (KARE-ec-ter): a person who is responsible for the thoughts and actions within a story, poem, or other literature. Characters are extremely important because they are the medium through which a reader interacts with a piece of literature. Every character has his or her own personality, which a creative author uses to assist in forming the plot of a story or creating a mood. The different attitudes, mannerisms, and even appearances of characters can greatly influence the other major elements in a literary work, such as theme, setting, and tone. With this understanding of the character, a reader can become more aware of brothers, possibly twins, who displayed intense sibling rivalry. God was not pleased with Cain's offerings, but found pleasure in Abel's offerings. Provoked by God's displeasure with him, Cain murdered his own brother out of jealousy. Victoria Henderson, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke connotation (KAH-nuh-TAE-shun): an association that comes along with a particular word. Connotations relate not to a word's actual meaning, or denotation, but rather to the ideas or qualities that are implied by that word. A good example is the word "gold." The denotation of gold is a malleable, ductile, yellow element. The connotations, however, are the ideas associated with gold, such as greed, luxury, or avarice. Another example occurs in the Book of Genesis. Jacob says: “Dan will be a serpent by the roadside, a viper along the path, that bites the horse’s heels so that its rider tumbles backward" (Gen 49:17). In this passage, Dan is not literally going to become a snake. However, describing Dan as a "snake" and "viper" forces the reader to associate him with the negative qualities that are commonly associated with reptiles, such as slyness, danger, and evil. Dan becomes like a snake, sly and dangerous to the riders. Writers use connotation to make their writing more vivid and interesting to read. See A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Jennifer Lance, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke couplet (KUP-let): a style of poetry defined as a complete thought written in two lines with rhyming ends. The most popular of the couplets is the heroic couplet. The heroic couplet consists of two rhyming lines of iambic pentameter usually having a pause in the middle of each line. One of William Shakespeare’s trademarks was to end a sonnet with a couplet, as in the poem “Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day”: denotation (DEE-no-TAE-shuhn): the exact meaning of a word, without the feelings or suggestions that the word may imply. It is the opposite of “connotation” in that it is the “dictionary” meaning of a word, without attached feelings or associations. Some examples of denotations, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke denouement (day-noo-mon): literally meaning the action of untying, a denouement is the final outcome of the main complication in a play or story. Usually the climax (the turning point or "crisis") of the work has already occurred by the time the denouement occurs. It is sometimes referred to as the explanation or outcome of a drama that reveals all the secrets and misunderstandings connected to the plot. In the drama Othello, there is a plot to deceive Othello into believing that his wife, Desdemona, has been unfaithful to him. As a result of this plot, Othello kills his wife out of jealousy, the climax of the play. The denounement occurs soon after, when Emilia, who was Desdemona's mistress, proves to Othello that his wife was in fact honest, true, and faithful to him. Emilia reveals to Othello that her husband, Iago, had plotted against Desdemona and tricked Othello into believing that she had been unfaithful. Iago kills Emilia in front of Othello, and she dies telling Othello his wife was innocent. As a result of being mad with grief, Othello plunges a dagger into his own heart. Understanding the denouement helps the reader to see how the final end of a story unfolds, and how the structure of stories works to affect our emotions. See Encyclopedia of Literature, Miriam Webster. Shelby Locklear, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke dialogue (di-UH-log): The conversation between characters in a drama or narrative. A dialouge occurs in most works of literature. For example, many ballads demonstrate a ocnversation between two or more characters. In the anonymous ballad, "Sir Patrick Spens", we are able to observe the dialogue between Sir Patrick Spens and his mirry men. In the verses 21-24, "Mak hast, mak haste, my mirry men all, Our guid schip sails the morne: O say na sae, my master deir, for I feir a deadline storme," dialogue can be seen. According to A Handbook of Literature, dialogue serves several functions in literature. It moves the action along in a work and it also helps to characterize the personality of the speakers, which vary depending on their nationalities, jobs, social classes, and educations. It also gives literature a more natural, conversational flow, which makes it more readable and enjoyable. By showcasing human interaction, dialogue prevents literature from being nothing more than a list of descriptions and actions. Dialogue varies in structure and tone depending on the people participating in the conversation and the mood that the author is trying to maintain in his or her writing. See A Handbook to Literature,The American Heritage Dictionary. Ramon Gonzalez, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke didactic (di-DAK-tik): refers to literature or other types of art that are instructional or informative. In this sense The Bible is didactic because it offers guidance in moral, religious, and ethical matters. It tells stories of the lives of people that followed Christian teachings, and stories of people that decided to go against God and the consequences that they faced. The term "didactic" also refers to texts that are overburdened with instructive and factual information, sometimes to the detriment of a reader's enjoyment. The opposite of "didactic" is "nondidactic." If a writer is more concerned with artistic qualities and techniques than with conveying a message, then that piece of work is considered to be nondidactic, even if it is instructive. See Encyclopedia of Literature, Benet's Readers Encyclopedia. Jennifer Baker, University of North Carolina at Pembroke dramatic monologue (dra-MA-tik mon'-O-lôg): a literary device that is used when a character reveals his or her innermost thoughts and feelings, those that are hidden throughout the course of the story line, through a poem or a speech. This speech, where only one character speaks, is recited while other characters are present onstage. This monologue often comes during a climactic moment in a work and often reveals hidden truths about a character, their history and their relationships. Also it can further develop a character's personality and also be used to create irony. The most famous examples of this special type of monologue can be out of a Greek work known as a "elegus," a song of mourning or lamentation that is accompanied by the flute. Beginning in the 16th century, elegies took the form we know today. Two famous elegies include Thomas Gray’s "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" and Walt Whitman’s "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d". Gray’s elegy is notable in that it mourned the loss of a way of life rather than the loss of an individual. His work, which some consider to be almost political, showed extreme discontent for strife and tyranny set upon England by Oliver Cromwell. This work also acted as an outlet for Gray’s dissatisfaction with those poets who wrote in accordance with the thoughts and beliefs of the upper class. In his elegy, Gray mourned for his country and mourned for its citizens. Whitman, inspired by the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, wrote his elegy in its classic form, showing sorrow for the loss of an individual. See A Reader’s Companion to World Literature, and Dictionary of World Literature. epigram (ep-e-gram): a short poem or verse that seeks to ridicule a thought or event, usually with witticism or sarcasm. These literary works were very popular during the Renaissance in Europe in the late 14th century and the Neoclassical period, which began after the Restoration in 1660. They were most commonly found in classic Latin literature, European and English literature. In Ancient Greek, an epigram originally meant a short inscription, but its meaning was later broadened to include any very short poems. Poems that are meditative or satiric all fall into this category. These short poems formulated from the light verse species, which concentrated on the tone of voice and the attitude of the lyric or narrative speaker toward the subject. With a relaxed manner, lyricists would recite poems to their subjects that were comical or whimsical. poetry publisher looking for submissions, constructed an epigram to show humor in Romanticism. Ways to get poetry published, the way to get poetry published, get poem published, where to get poem published, where to get poetry published, where to get my poetry published. His thoughts, who will publish my poetry, who publishes poetry, figurative language (fig-YOOR-a-tive LAN-gwije): a type of language that varies from the norms of literal language, in which words mean exactly what they say.

Also known as the "ornaments of language," figurative language who will publish my poetry, who will publish my poem, who can i send my poetry to. Where to get your poetry published, where to get my poetry published, where to get poetry published. In a simile, for example, how to publish poetry, how do I get my poetry published, how to get my poetry published, an author may compare a person to an animal: Chicago beat poetry, a new prairie school of chicago poetry, chicago beat poems, chicago beat poets. where to send poem for publication. Figurative language facilitates understanding because it relates something unfamiliar to something familiar. Some popular examples of figurative language include a simile and metaphor. I want to get my poem published, i want to get my poetry published, I want to publish my poetry, I want to find a poetry publisher, help me get my poetry published. How to get my poetry published. flashback (flash-BAK): how to get a poem published, of an event of earlier they previously sold him into slavery (NIV, 69). Where can I get my poetry published? Where to submit poetry, best place to make poetry submissions, poetry magazine looking for submissions, where to send my poetry, where to send poetry, where to send your poetry, poetry publisher looking for poetry, Here, a mother is remembering her murdered child. As she is going to a church, she remembers her child born, grow, and die. Later she thinks back to further in her past to remember how her own mother was unkind to her (Kennedy et al, 626-627). Arthur Miller’s “Death of a Salesman” uses flashback to relate Willy Loman’s memories of the past. At one point, place to publish my poetry, place to get my poetry published, with Charley, reliving a past conversation in the present. Get poem published, how to get my poem published, getting a poem published, where to get my poem published, best way to get poem published, publish poem, publish your poem, publish my poem. This shows a character that is mentally living in the present with the memories and events of the past (Roberts et al, 1232). By understanding flashbacks, the reader is able to receive more details about the current narration by filling in the details about the past. Melanie Stephens, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke genre (ZHAHN-ruh): a type of literature. We say a poem, novel, story, or other literary work belongs to a particular genre if it shares at least a few conventions, or standard characteristics, with other works in that genre. For example, works in the Gothic genre often feature supernatural elements, attempts to horrify the reader, and dark, foreboding settings, particularly very old castles or mansions. Edgar Allan Poe's short story "The Fall of the House of Usher" belongs to the Gothic genre because it takes place in a gloomy mansion that seems to exert supernatural control over a man who lives in it. Furthermore, Poe attempts to horrify the reader by describing the man's ghastly face, the burial of his sister, eerie sounds in the house, and ultimately the reappearance of the sister's bloody body at the end of the story. Other genres include the pastoral poem, epic poem, elegy, tragic drama, and bildungsroman. An understanding of genre is useful because it helps us to see how an author adopts, subverts, or transcends the standard practices that other authors have developed. See A Handbook to Literature, Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia. Mark Canada, English professor, University of North Carolina at Pembroke Gothic (goth-IK): a literary style popular during the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. This style usually portrayed fantastic tales dealing with horror, despair, the grotesque and other "dark" subjects. Gothic literature was named for the apparent influence of the dark gothic architecture of the period on the genre. Also, many of these Gothic tales took places in such "gothic" surroundings, sometimes a dark and stormy castle as shown in Mary Wollstoncraft Shelly's Frankenstein, or Bram Stoker's infamous Dracula. Other times, this story of darkness may occur in a more everyday setting, such as the quaint house where the man goes mad from the "beating" of his guilt in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Tell-Tale Heart". In essence, these stories were romances, largely due to their love of the imaginary over the logical, and were told from many different points of view. This literature gave birth to many other forms, such as suspense, ghost stories, horror, mystery, and also Poe's detective stories. Gothic literature wasn't so different from other genres in form as it was in content and its focus on the "weird" aspects of life. This movement began to slowly open may people's eyes to the possible uses of the supernatural in literature. Jerry Taylor, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke hyperbole (hi-per-bo-lee): an extravagant exaggeration. From the Greek for "overcasting," hyperbole is a figure of speech that is a grossly exaggerated description or statement. In literature, such exaggeration is used for emphasis or vivid descriptions. In drama, hyperbole is quite common, especially in heroic drama. Hyperbole is a fundamental part of both burlesque writing and the “tall tales” from Western America. The conscious overstatements of these tales are forms of hyperbole. Many other examples of hyperbole can be found in the romance fiction and comedy genres. Hyperbole is even a part of our day-to-day speech: ‘You’ve grown like a bean sprout’ or ‘I’m older than the hills.’ Hyperbole is used to increase the effect of a description, whether it is metaphoric or comic. In poetry, hyperbole can emphasize or dramatize a person’s opinions or emotions. Skilled poets use hyperbole to describe intense emotions and mental states. Othello uses hyperbole to describe his anger at the possibility of Iago lying about his wife’s infidelity in Act III, Scene III of Shakespeare’s play Othello: irony (i-RAH-nee): a literary term referring to how a person, situation, statement, or circumstance is not as it would actually seem. Many times it is the exact opposite of what it appears to be. There are many types of irony, the three most common being verbal irony, dramatic irony, and cosmic irony. Verbal irony occurs when either the speaker means something totally different than what he is saying or the audience realizes, because of their knowledge of the particular situation to which the speaker is referring, that the opposite of what a character is saying is true. Verbal irony also occurs when a character says something in jest that, in actuality, is true. In Julius Caesar, Marc Antony’s reference to Brutus being an honorable man is an example of verbal irony. Marc Antony notes all of the good deeds Julius Caesar did for his people while, more than once, he asks the rhetorical question, “Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?” Antony uses this rhetorical question to try to convince his audience that Caesar is not ambitious, presenting Brutus as a dishonorable man because of his claim that Caesar was ambitious. Dramatic irony occurs when facts are not known to the characters in a work of literature but are known by the audience. In The Gospel According to St. John, the Pharisees say of Jesus, “Can any good thing come out of Nazareth?” This is dramatic irony for the reader already knows, according to the author, that Jesus is the Savior of the world and has already done much good for the people by forgiving their sins and healing the as emotion and all flow fairly concisely. Because of this aspect, as well as their steady rhythm, they were often used in song. In fact, most people still see a "lyric" as anything that is sung along to a musical instrument. It is believed that the lyric began in its earliest stage in Ancient Egypt around 2600 BC in the forms of elegies, odes, or hymns generated out of religious ceremonies. Some of the more note-worthy authors who have used the lyric include William Blake, William Wordsworth, John Keats, and William Shakespeare-who helped popularize the sonnet, another type of lyric. The importance of understanding the lyric can best be shown through its remarkable ability to express with such imagination the innermost emotions of the soul. See The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Jerry Taylor, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke metaphor (met-AH-for) [from the Gk. carrying one place to another]: a type of figurative language in which a statement is made that says that one thing is something else but, literally, it is not. In connecting one object, event, or place, to another, a metaphor can uncover new and intriguing qualities of the original thing that we may not normally notice or even consider important. Metaphoric language is used in order to realize a new and different meaning. As an effect, a metaphor functions primarily to increase stylistic colorfulness and variety. Metaphor is a great contributor to poetry when the reader understands a likeness between two essentially different things. In his Poetics, Aristotle claims that for one to master the use of metaphor is “…a sign of genius, since a good metaphor implies an intuitive perception of the similarity in dissimilars” (The Poet's Dictionary). A metaphor may be found in a simple comparison or largely as the image of an entire poem. For example, Emily Dickinson’s poem “My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun” makes use of a series of comparisons between the speaker and a gun. Dickinson opens the work with the following: “My Life had stood – a Loaded Gun - / In corners – till a Day / The Owner passed – identified - / And carried me away”. Of course, the narrator is not really a gun. The metaphor carries with it all the qualities of a “Loaded Gun”. The speaker in the poem is making a series of comparisons between themselves and the qualities of a gun. The narrator had been waiting a long time before their love found them. The narrator loves her fellow so desperately that she feels as a protective gun that would kill anyone wishing to harm him. To this effect, Dickinson writes, "To foe of His – I’m deadly foe –." Dickinson’s poem ends up being one extended comparison through the use of metaphor between herself and a gun with “…but the power to kill.” See A Handbook to Literature, The Poet’s Dictionary, or A Glossary of Literary Terms (7th edition). Andy Stamper, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke metonymy (me-TAH-nah-me): a figure of speech which substitutes one term with another that is being associated with the that term. A name transfer takes place to demonstrate an association of a whole to a part or how two things are associated in some way. This allows a reader to recognize similarities or common features among terms. It may provide a more common meaning to a word. However, it may be a parallel shift that provides basically the same meaning; it is just said another way. For example, in the book of Genesis 3:19, it refers to Adam by saying that “by the sweat of your brow, you will eat your food.” Sweat represents the hard labor that Adam will have to endure to produce the food that will sustain his life. The sweat on his brow is a vivid picture of how hard he is working to attain a goal. Another example is in Genesis 27:28 when Isaac tells Jacob that “God will give abundance of grain and new wine.” This grain and wine represents the wealth that Jacob will attain by stealing the birth right. These riches are like money that is for consumption or material possessions to trade for other goods needed for survival. Furthermore, in the play Othello, Act I Scene I features metonymy when Iago refers to Othello as “ the devil” that “will make a grandsire of you.” This phrase represents a person that is seen as deceitful or evil. An understanding of metonymy aids a reader to see how an author interchanges words to further describe a term’s meaning. See A Handbook to Literature; Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama; Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama; or Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary. Melanie Stephens, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke motif (moh-TEEF): a recurring object, concept, or structure in a work of literature. A motif may also be two contrasting elements in a work, such as good and evil. In the Book of Genesis, we see the motif of separation again and again throughout the story. In the very first chapter, God separates the light from the darkness. Abraham and his descendants are separated from the rest of the nation as God's chosen people. Joseph is separated from his brothers in order that life might be preserved. Another motif is water, seen in Genesis as a means of destroying the wicked and in Matthew as a means of remitting sins by the employment of baptism. Other motifs in Genesis and Matthew include blood sacrifices, fire, lambs, and goats. A motif is important because it allows one to see main points and themes that the author is trying to express, in order that one might be able to interpret the work more accurately. See A Handbook to Literature, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. Robert Bean, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke myth (mith): any story that attempts to explain how the world was created or why the world is the way that it is. Myths are stories that are passed on from generation to generation and normally involve religion. M.H. Abram refers to where the body is hidden, the madman thinks he hears the heart of the victim beating beneath the floorboards. Scared that the police hear the heartbeat too, the madman confesses. This is a narrative because of two things, it has a sequence in which the events are told, beginning with murder and ending with the confession, and it has a narrator, who is the madman, telling the story. By understanding the term "narrative,” one begins to understand that most literary works have a simple outline: the story, the plot, and the storyteller. By studying more closely, most novels and short stories are placed into the categories of first-person and third-person narratives, which are based on who is telling the story and from what perspective. Other important terms that relate to the term "narrative,” are "narrative poetry," poetry that tells a story, and "narrative technique" which means how one tells a story. narrative poem (nar-RAH-tiv po-EM): a poem that tells a story. A narrative poem can come in many forms and styles, both complex and simple, short or long, as long as it tells a story. A few examples of a narrative poem are epics, ballads, and metrical romances. In western literature, narrative poetry dates back to the Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh and Homer's epics the Iliad and the Odyssey. In England and Scotland, storytelling poems have long been popular; in the late Middle Ages, ballads-or storytelling songs-circulated widely. The art of narrative poetry is difficult in that it requires the author to possess the skills of a writer of fiction, the ability to draw characters and settings briefly, to engage attention, and to shape a plot, while calling for all the skills of a poet besides. See A Handbook of Literature and Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Melissa Houghton, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke narrator (nar-RAY-ter): one who tells a story, the speaker or the “voice” of an oral or written work. Although it can be, the narrator is not usually the same person as the author. The narrator is one of three types of characters in a given work, (1) participant (protagonist or participant in any action that may take place in the story), (2) observer (someone who is indirectly involved in the action of a story), or (3) non participant (one who is not at all involved in any action of the story). The narrator is the direct window into a piece of work. Depending on the part of the character of the narrator plays in the story, the narrator may demonstrate bias when presenting a piece of work. In the Book of Matthew, the narrator Matthew, probably presented some bias when giving his accounts of the events that took place during that time. See Introduction to Literature, A Handbook to Literature. Heather Cameron, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke parable (PAIR-uh-buhl): a brief and often simple narrative that illustrates a moral or religious lesson. Some of the best-known parables are in the Bible, where Jesus uses them to teach his disciples. For example, in "The Parable of the Good Seed," a farmer plants a garden. As the farmer sleeps, someone sows weeds in his field to destroy the farmer's crops. However, when he learns of his misfortune, he does not demolish his entire garden just to remove the weeds. The farmer waits patiently until harvest time and gathers his wheat after the weeds have first been collected and destroyed. The lesson to be learned in this parable is to not be quick to annihilate evil; it will in deserving time receive its punishment. Some other parables in the Bible are "The Parable of the Prodigal Son" and "The Parable of the Mustard Seed." See The Encyclopedia of Literature, A Handbook to Literature. Starlet Chavis, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke persona (per-SO-na): In literature, the persona is the narrator, or the storyteller, of a literary work created by the author. As Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama puts it, the persona is not the author, but the author’s creation--the voice “through which the author speaks.” It could be a character in the work, or a fabricated onlooker, relaying the sequence of events in a narrative. Such an example of persona exists in the poem “Robin Hood and Allin a Dale,” in which an anonymous character, perhaps one of Robin’s “merry men,” recounts the events of the meeting and adventures of Robin Hood and Allin a Dale. After telling of their initial introduction in the forest, the persona continues to elaborate on their quest to recover Allin’s true love from the man she is about to marry. Robin and his entourage succeed and then proceed to marry her and Allin a Dale. The persona’s importance is recognized due to the more genuine manner in which the events of a story are illustrated to the reader—with a sense of knowledge and emotion only one with a firsthand view of the action could depict. See A Handbook to Literature, Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of Literature, Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Stephanie White, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke personification {PER-son-E-fih-ka-shEn): A figure of speech where animals, ideas or inorganic objects are given human characteristics. One example of this is James Stephens’s poem "The Wind" in which wind preforms several actions. In the poem Stephens writes, “The wind stood up and gave a shout. He whistled on his two fingers.” Of course the wind did not actually "stand up," but this image of the wind creates a vivid picture of the wind's wild actions. Another example of personification in this poem is “Kicked the withered leaves about….And thumped the branches with his hand.” Here, the wind is kicking leaves about, just like a person would and using hands to thump branches like a person would also. By giving human characteristics to things that do not have them, it makes these objects and their actions easier to visualize for a reader. By giving the wind human characteristics, Stephens makes this poem more interesting and achieves a much more vivid image of the way wind whips around a room. Personification is most often used in poetry, coming to popularity during the 18th century. Jennifer Winborne, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke point of view (point ov veww): a way the events of a story are conveyed to the reader, it is the “vantage point” from which the narrative is passed from author to the reader. The point of view can vary from work to work. For example, in the Book of Genesis the objective third person point of view is presented, where a “nonparticipant” serves as the narrator and has no insight into the characters' minds. The narrator presents the events using the pronouns he, it, they, and reveals no inner thoughts of the characters. In Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Cask of Amontillado” the first person point of view is exhibited. In this instance the main character conveys the incidents he encounters, as well as giving the reader insight into himself as he reveals his thoughts, feelings, and intentions. Many other points of view exist, such as omniscient (or “all knowing”) in which the narrator “moves from one character to another as necessary” to provide those character’s respective motivations and emotions. Understanding the point of view used in a work is critical to understanding literature; it serves as the instrument to relay the events of a story, and in some instances the feelings and motives of the character(s). See A Handbook to Literature, Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Readers Encyclopedia of Literature. Khalil Shakeel, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke rhyme (rime): repetition of an identical or similarly accented sound or sounds in a work. Lyricists may find multiple ways to rhyme within a verse. End rhymes have words that rhyme at the end of a verse-line. Internal rhymes have words that rhyme within it. Algernon C. Swinburne (1837-1909), a rebel and English poet, used internal rhymes in many of his Victorian poems such as “sister, my sister, O fleet sweet swallow.” There are cross rhymes in which the rhyme occurs at the end of one line and in the middle of the next; and random rhymes, in which the rhymes seem to occur accidentally in no specific combination, often mixed with unrhymed lines. These sort of rhymes try to bring a creative edge to verses that usually have perfect rhymes in a sequential order. Historically, rhyme came into poetry late, showing in the Western world around AD 200 in the Church Latin of North Africa. Its popularity grew in Medieval Latin poetry. The frequently used spelling in English, r*h*y*m*e , comes from a false identification of the Greek word “rhythmos.” Its true origin comes from Provencal, which is a relation to Provence, a region of France. The traditional Scottish ballad, “Edward,” uses end rhymes to describe what he has done with his sword and property: rhyme scheme (rime skeem): the pattern of rhyme used in a poem, generally indicated by matching lowercase letters to show which lines rhyme. The letter "a" notes the first line, and all other lines rhyming with the first line. The first line that does not rhyme with the first, or "a" line, and all others that rhyme with this line, is noted by the letter "b", and so on. The rhyme scheme may follow a fixed pattern (as in a sonnet) or may be arranged freely according to the poet's requirements. The use of a scheme, or pattern, came about before poems were written down; when they were passed along in song or oral poetry. Since many of these poems were long, telling of great heroes, battles, and other important cultural events, the rhyme scheme helped with memorization. A rhyme scheme also helps give a verse movement, providing a break before changing thoughts. The four-line stanza, or quatrain, is usually written with the first line rhyming with the third line, and the second line rhyming with the fourth line, abab. The English sonnet generally has three quatrains and a couplet, such as abab, cdcd, efef, gg. The Italian sonnet has two quatrains and a sestet, or six-line stanza, such as abba, abba, cde, cde. Rhyme schemes were adapted to meet the artistic and expressive needs of the poet. Henry Howard Surrey is credited with introducing the sonnet form to England. This form differed from the Italian form because he found that there were fewer rhyming words in English than there were in Italian.Excerpt from Shakespeare's "Sonnet XVIII", rhyme scheme: a b a b. See Benet's Reader's Encyclopedia, Dictionary of Literary Terms, A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2000. Nancy Bullard, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke. setting (set-ting): accent alexandrine alliteration anapest antithesis apostrophe assonance ballad ballade blank verse caesura canzone carpe diem chanson de geste classicism conceit consonance couplet dactyl elegy enjambment envoy epic epigram epithalamium (or epithalamion) feminine rhyme figure of speech alliteration, assonance, metaphor, metonymy, onomatopoeia, simile, and synecdoche foot free verse (also vers libre) haiku heptameter heroic couplet hexameter hyperbole iamb iambic pentameter idyll, or idyl lay limerick litotes lyric masculine rhyme metaphor meter metonymy narrative ode onomatopoeia ottava rima pastoral pentameter personification poetry quatrain refrain rhyme rhyme royal romanticism scansion senryu simile sonnet spondee stanza stress synecdoche tanka terza rima tetrameter trochee trope verse simile (sim-EH-lee): a simile is a type of figurative language, language that does not mean exactly what it says, that makes a comparison between two otherwise unalike objects or ideas by connecting them with the words "like" or "as." The reader can see a similar connection with the verbs resemble, compare and liken. Similes allow an author to emphasize a certain characteristic of an object by comparing that object to an unrelated object that is an example of that characteristic. An example of a simile can be seen in the poem “Robin Hood and Allin a Dale”: In this poem, the lass did not literally glisten like gold, but by comparing the lass to the gold the author emphasizes her beauty, radiance and purity, all things associated with gold. Similarly, in N. Scott Momaday’s simple poem, “Simile.” he says that the two characters in the poem are like deer who walk in a single line with their heads high with their ears forward and their eyes watchful. By comparing the walkers to the nervous deer, Momaday emphasizes their care and caution. See A Handbook to Literature or Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Crystal Burnette, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke short story (short store-ey): a prose narrative that is brief in nature. The short story also has many of the same characteristics of a novel including characters, setting and plot. However, due to length constraints, these characteristics and devices generally may not be as fully developed or as complex as those developed for a full-length novel. There are many authors well known for the short story including Edgar Allan Poe, Sherwood Anderson and Ernest Hemingway. According to the book Literary Terms by Karl Becksonand Arthur Ganz, “American writers since Poe, who first theorized on the structure and purpose of the short story, have paid considerable attention to the form” (257). The written “protocol” regarding what comprises a short versus a long story is vague. However, a general standard might be that the short story could be read in one sitting. NTC’s Dictionary of Literary Terms quotes Edgar Allan Poe’s description as being ‘a short prose narrative, requiring from a half-hour to one or two hours in its perusal’ (201). Please refer to Literary Terms by Karl Beckson and Arthur Ganz and NTC’s Dictionary of Literary Terms by Kathleen Morner and Ralph Rausch for further information. Susan Severson, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke slant rhyme (slänt rime) is also known as near rhyme, half rhyme, off rhyme, imperfect rhyme, oblique rhyme, or pararhyme. A distinctive system or pattern of metrical structure and verse composition in which two words have only their accepted as slant rhyme due to their usage of sound combinations (spilled and spoiled, chitter and chatter). By not allowing the reader to predict or expect what is coming slant rhyme allows the poet to express things in different or certain ways. Slant rhyme was most common in the Irish, Welsh and Icelandic verse and prose long before Henry Vaughn used it in English. Not until William Butler Yeats and Gerald Manley Hopkins began to use slant rhyme did it become regularly used in English.Wilfred Owen was one of the first poets to realize the impact of rhyming consonants in a consistent pattern. A World War I soldier he sought a powerful means to convey the harshness of war. Killed in action, his most famous work was written in the year prior to his death. The sonnet was first brought to England by Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, in the sixteenth century, where the second sonnet form arose. The English or Shakespearean sonnet was named after William Shakespeare (1564-1616) who most believed to the best writer to use the form. Adapting the Italian form to the English, the octave and sestet were replaced by three quatrains, each having its own independent rhyme scheme typically rhyming every other line, and ending with a rhyme couplet. Instead of the Italianic break between the octave and the sestet, the break comes between the twelfth and thirteenth lines.Advent Christian Church Adventist African Methodist Episcopal Church African Methodist Episcopal Zion African Orthodox Church African Union Methodist Protestant Albanian Orthodox Diocese of America Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist American Baptist Churches USA American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Amish Anabaptist Anglican Anglican Episcopal of North America Anglican Orthodox Church Antiochian Orthodox Christian Apostolic Christian Church Apostolic Church of Pentecost Apostolic Faith Church Apostolic Lutheran Church of America Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church Armenian Apostolic Church Armenian Church of America Armenian Evangelical Church Assemblies of God Baptist Baptist Bible Fellowship Berean Fundamental Churches Bible Fellowship Church Bible Methodist Connection Bible Presbyterian Church Bible Way Church of Lord Jesus Christ Branch Davidian Brethren Brethren in Christ 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Being aware of unreliable narrators are essential, especially when you have to describe the characters and their actions to others, since the narrator, unreliable as they are, abandons you without the important guidance to make trustworthy judgments. See The Turn of the Screw and A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Starlet Chavis, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke

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